関係代名詞

英文法Ⅲ

関係代名詞の基本文法

関係代名詞whoを含む文の構造

ア I  know  the boy.    He lives in this town.

  ⎿  同格 ⏌

イ I  know  the boy  who  lives  in  this  town.

 先行詞 修飾部

「私はこの街に住んでいる(その少年を知っている。」

⑴ 関係代名詞は,2つの文に共通な語の一方の名詞や代名詞の代わりに用いられ,先行詞を修飾して2つの文をつなぐ働きをする。上の例では,アの2つの文が,イの1つの文になっている。

⑵ 先行詞 →必ず関係代名詞の前にある。固有名詞や代名詞が先行詞になることはない。

主格 →who, which

⑴ 先行詞が人の場合はwhoを使う。

・ I know the boy. + He lives in this town.

=I know the boy who lives in this town.

「私は,この町に住んでいる(その)少年を知っている。」

The lady is Miss Green. + She is sitting on the chair.

=The lady who is sitting on the chair is Miss Green.

「椅子にすわっている(その)婦人はグリーンさんだ。」

⑵ 先行詞が人以外の場合はwhichを使う。

・ I like this book. + It was written by Soseki Natsume.

=I like the book which was written by Soseki Natsume..

「私は,夏目漱石によって書かれた,この本が好きだ。」

または,「私はこの,夏目漱石によって書かれた本が好きだ。」

The book is mine. + It is on the desk.

=The book which is on the desk is mine.

「机の上の(その)本は私のものだ。」

【問い】次の各組の英文を1文に直せ。また日本語に直せ。

① I know the man.  He came to see you.

② They have a son.  He is five years old.

③ Here is a boy.  He can run fast.

④ What is that building?  It stands on the hill.

⑤ The boys are my friends.  They are playing baseball.

⑥ I have a book.  It was given me on Christmas day.

⑦ The girls are playing tennis.  They are Mary and Jane.

⑧ Do you know the girl?  She helped you with your homework.

⑨ Is this the bus?  It goes to the station.

⑩ The building stands by the lake.  It is a church.

目的格 →whom, which

⑴ 先行詞が人の場合はwhomを使う。

・ I know the girl. + You met her at the hotel.

=I know the girl whom you met at the hotel.

「私は,君がホテルで会った(その)少女を知っている。」

The man is Mr. Green. + You know him well.

=The man whom you know well is Mr. Green.

「君がよく知っている(その)男性はグリーンさんだ。」

⑵ 先行詞が人以外の場合はwhichを使う。

・ I like this book. + I bought it yesterday.

=I like this book which I bought yesterday.

「私は,きのう買った本が気に入っている。」

The key is mine. + You found it in this room.

=The key which you found in this room is mine.

「君がこの部屋で見つけた(その)鍵は私のものだ。」

  • 目的格の関係代名詞はすべて省略できる。

【問い】次の各組の英文を1文に直せ。また日本語に直せ。

① I’ll give you the book.  I bought it.

② I know the girl.  I saw her in the park.

③ This is the watch.  I lost it yesterday.

④ These are the letters.  My uncle wrote them

⑤ Mary has a piano.  Her grandmother bought it for her.

⑥ The girl was Mary Brown.  You met her last night.

⑦ The lady is my aunt.  You met her in the garden.

⑧ This doll is mine.  It was made by my mother.

⑨ The book is very interesting.  You lent it to me.

⑩ The children were playing baseball.  I saw them in the park.

⑪ That student was Obama.  I taught him the history of Africa.

thatの用法

⑴ who, whom, whichの代わりに用いることができる。目的格で用いられる場合は省略できる。

⑵ 先行詞にthe first, the last,形容詞の最上級がついた場合

She is the first girl that came to the party.

This is the most beautiful picture that I have ever seen.

⑶ 先行詞にthe only, the same,the very, all, everyなどがついた場合

He is the only student that can answer the question.

She is the very woman that climbed Mt. Everest for the first time.

⑷ 先行詞が人と動物(物)を含む場合

Look at the boy and his dog that are coming this way.

⑸ 疑問代名詞で始まる文の場合

Who is the student that could solve this problem?

英文法Ⅲ
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