ア I know the boy. He lives in this town.
⎿ 同格 ⏌
イ I know the boy who lives in this town.
⑵ 先行詞 →必ず関係代名詞の前にある。固有名詞や代名詞が先行詞になることはない。
主格 →who, which
・ I know the boy. ＋ He lives in this town.
＝I know the boy who lives in this town.
・ The lady is Miss Green. ＋ She is sitting on the chair.
＝The lady who is sitting on the chair is Miss Green.
・ I like this book. ＋ It was written by Soseki Natsume.
＝I like the book which was written by Soseki Natsume..
・ The book is mine. ＋ It is on the desk.
＝The book which is on the desk is mine.
① I know the man. He came to see you.
② They have a son. He is five years old.
③ Here is a boy. He can run fast.
④ What is that building? It stands on the hill.
⑤ The boys are my friends. They are playing baseball.
⑥ I have a book. It was given me on Christmas day.
⑦ The girls are playing tennis. They are Mary and Jane.
⑧ Do you know the girl? She helped you with your homework.
⑨ Is this the bus? It goes to the station.
⑩ The building stands by the lake. It is a church.
目的格 →whom, which
・ I know the girl. ＋ You met her at the hotel.
＝I know the girl whom you met at the hotel.
・ The man is Mr. Green. ＋ You know him well.
＝The man whom you know well is Mr. Green.
・ I like this book. ＋ I bought it yesterday.
＝I like this book which I bought yesterday.
・ The key is mine. ＋ You found it in this room.
＝The key which you found in this room is mine.
① I’ll give you the book. I bought it.
② I know the girl. I saw her in the park.
③ This is the watch. I lost it yesterday.
④ These are the letters. My uncle wrote them
⑤ Mary has a piano. Her grandmother bought it for her.
⑥ The girl was Mary Brown. You met her last night.
⑦ The lady is my aunt. You met her in the garden.
⑧ This doll is mine. It was made by my mother.
⑨ The book is very interesting. You lent it to me.
⑩ The children were playing baseball. I saw them in the park.
⑪ That student was Obama. I taught him the history of Africa.
⑴ who, whom, whichの代わりに用いることができる。目的格で用いられる場合は省略できる。
⑵ 先行詞にthe first, the last，形容詞の最上級がついた場合
She is the first girl that came to the party.
This is the most beautiful picture that I have ever seen.
⑶ 先行詞にthe only, the same，the very, all, everyなどがついた場合
He is the only student that can answer the question.
She is the very woman that climbed Mt. Everest for the first time.
Look at the boy and his dog that are coming this way.
Who is the student that could solve this problem?