過去の文

牧場 英文法Ⅱ

be動詞の過去形

現在の文過去の文
I am a student.I was a student.
You are thirteen years old.You were thirteen years old.
He is busy.He was busy.
She is playing the piano.She was playing the piano.
Are you free?Were  you free?
―Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.―Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t.

 過去を表す副詞(句)

① yesterday, yesterday morningなど

② last night, last Sunday, last yearなど

③ three weeks ago, many months agoなど

④ then, at that time, just now

⑤ this morning, the day before yesterday

一般動詞の過去形

現在の文過去の文
You play the piano.You played the piano.
You don’t play the piano.You didn’t play the piano.
Do you play the piano?Did you play the piano?
―Yes, I do. / No, I don‘t.―Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.
What do you play?What did you play?
―I play the piano.―I played the piano.

規則動詞の-edのつけ方

⑴  原則として,edをつける。
《例》  open−opened,ask−asked,visit−visited,play−played
⑵  語尾が「e」で終わる場合,dをつける。
《例》  live−lived,love−loved,use−used,dance−danced
⑶  語尾が「子音字+y」で終わる場合,yをiに変えてedをつける。
《例》  study−studied,carry−carried,try−tried,cry−cried
⑷  語尾が「短母音+子音字」で終わる場合,子音字を重ねてedをつける。
《例》  stop−stopped,plan−planned,beg−begged

規則動詞の-edの発音のし方

⑴  原則として,[d/ド]と発音する。
《例》 answered,lived,called,studied
⑵  語尾が「d,t(e)」で終わる場合,[id/イド]と発音する。
《例》 needed,handed,wanted,waited
⑶  語尾が「k(e),p(e),ch,sh,ce,ss,gh」で終わる場合,[t/ト]と発音する。
《例》 asked,liked,stopped,hoped,reached,washed,practiced,passed,laughed

【問1】次の不規則動詞の過去形を書け。

⒜ say⒝ hear⒞ take⒟ shut
⒠ give⒡ stop⒢ tell⒣ make
⒤ run⒥ begin⒦ read⒧ see
⒨ eat⒩ have⒪ catch⒫ know
⒬ find⒭ buy⒮ wear⒯ sleep
⒰ build⒱ bring⒲ break⒳ swim
⒴ put⒵ sit

【問2】次の動詞の過去形の語尾の発音をA[d/ド]・B[t/ト]・C[id/イド]のグループに分けよ。

① cook② study③ dance④ use
⑤ laugh⑥ end⑦ help⑧ watch
⑨ shout⑩ start⑪ visit⑫ smile
⑬ learn⑭ worry⑮ finish⑯ wash
⑰ want⑱ stay⑲ practice⑳ open

【問3】次の英文を,(  )内の指示に従って書き換えよ。

①  She is absent from school. (過去の文に)

② He is present at the party. (過去の否定文に)

③ Were you in time for the last bus? (Yesで答える文に)

④ Why was he late for school? (「遅く起きたから」と答える文に)

⑤ It was fifteen to eleven then. (下線部を問う文に)

⑥ What is he doing? (文末にthenを加えた文に)

⑦ Where were you then? (「図書館にいました」と答える文に)

⑧ She sings a song. (文末にat that timeを加えた文に)

⑨ He comes first, but leaves last. (過去の文に)

⑩ I wrote a letter last night. (過去進行形の文に)

⑪ Mr. Mori taught English to us. (下線部を問う文に)

⑫ My son goes out every day. (下線部をjust nowに換えて)

【問4】次の英文にはすべて,文法上の誤りがある。正しい文に書き換えよ。

① When he was in France, he studies art.

② Tom and Dick was swimming in the pool.

③ My mother had very busy yesterday morning.

④ Mr. Suzuki teaches English last year.

⑤ Everyone are talking about the news.

【問5】次の対話文を読んで,①~④にあてはまる最も適当な文を,下のア~クの中から1つずつ選べ。

Mr. Suzuki: Tadashi, you are late today.

Tadashi: I’m sorry.  I got up late this morning.

Mr. Suzuki: What time did you get up?

Tadashi: ①                        

Mr. Suzuki: That’s too late.  ②                         

Tadashi: Because I had to do a lot of homework last night.

Mr. Suzuki: I see.  ③                        

Tadashi: Yes, I will.  I’ll never be late again.

Mr. Suzuki: Well, did you finish your homework?

Tadashi: ④                        

ア Where  did you read last night?

イ I came home about four o’clock.

ウ Because he comes to school by bus.

エ Why did you get up so late?

オ I got up at seven thirty.

カ But come to school before it begins.

キ No, I don’t.

ク No, I didn’t.

英文法Ⅱ
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