命令文・感嘆文・疑問文

牧場 英文法Ⅱ

命令文

命令文

⑴ 「~しなさい」 の表現

You study hard.  ⇒ Study hard.

⑵ 「~してはならない」 の表現

You don’t give up.  ⇒ Don’t give up. (=Never give up.)     ★neverは強意表現

⑶ 「~してくれませんか」 の表現

You open the window.  ⇒ Please open the window. (=Open the window, please.)

⑷ 「~しましょう」 の表現

We go to the park.  ⇒ Let’s go to the park.

Be ~, Don’t be ~で始まる命令文

⑴ 「~であれ」 の表現

You are a good student.  ⇒ Be a good student.

You are kind to others.  ⇒ Be kind to others.

⑵ 「~であってはならない」 の表現

You are not noisy.  ⇒ Don’t be noisy.

命令文

Howで始まる感嘆文 →Howは副詞

⑴ 《 How+[     ]+主語+述語動詞+!》 の構文

I am very busy.「とても忙しい,私は」

⇒ How [     ]I am!「なんて忙しいのだろう,私は」

⑵ 《 How+[     ]+主語+述語動詞+!》 の構文

You play the piano very well.「とても上手に,君はピアノを弾く」

⇒ How[     ]you play the piano!「なんて上手に,君はピアノを弾くのだろう」

Whatで始まる感嘆文 →Whatは副詞

⑴ 《 What+a(an)+形容詞+[     ]+主語+述語動詞+!》 の構文

She is a very happy student. 「とても幸せな学生だ,彼女は」

⇒ What a[     ]student she is! 「なんて幸せな学生だろう,彼女は」

He has a very fast car. 「とても速い車を,彼は持っている」

⇒ What a [     ]car he has! 「なんて速い車を,彼は持っているのだろう」

☆ 次の書き換え公式を暗記せよ。

① How fast you swim!

=What a fast swimmer you are!

② How well they play baseball!

=What good baseball players they are!

③ How well our teacher speaks English!

=What a good speaker of English our teacher is!

④ 上記以外に,次のような語句の書き換えを知っておく必要がある。

・ run → a runner       ・ sing → a singer       ・ play tennis→ a tennis player

・ play the piano → a pianist       ・ play the violin → a violinist

【問1】次の文を感嘆文に書き換えよ。

① That picture is very pretty.

② This is a very beautiful park.

③ It is a very interesting book.

④ Tom can jump very high.

⑤ That car is running very fast.

⑥ There are a lot of books in this library.

【問2】次の各組の文がほぼ同じ意味になるように,あとの文の(  )の中に適語を1つずつ入れよ。

① How fast he runs!

=(   ) a (   ) (   ) he is!

② How well she sings!

=(   ) a (   ) (   ) she is!

③ How hard they work!

=(   ) hard (   ) they are!

④ What an old apple that is!

=(   ) (   ) that apple is!

⑤ What an early riser he is!

=(   ) (   ) he rises!

⑥ What useful books these are!

=(   ) (   ) these books are!

⑦ How well she speaks French!

=(   ) a (   ) (   ) (   ) (   ) she is!

いろいろな疑問文

付加疑問文

「~です(よ)ね・~ではありません(よ)ね」と,相手の確認・同意を求める表現

⑴ 《 [       ],+isn’t (don’t)+代名詞? 》

① This is a pen, isn’t it?

② You are very busy, aren’t you?

③ Mary danced well, didn’t she?

⑵ 《 [       ],+is (do)+代名詞? 》

① That building isn’t a church, is it?

② You weren’t studying then, were you?

③ She won’t go shopping today, will she?

否定疑問文

「~ではないのですか・~しないのですか」と,たずねる表現

⑴ isn’t,don’t,can’tなどの縮約形を主語の前に置く。

⑵ 答えが肯定ならYes,否定ならNoを用いる。日本語の「はい」 「いいえ」と反対になるので注意する。

☆ 次の英文を日本語に直せ。

① Aren’t you a scientist?    Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.

② Didn’t you like cats?   Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.

③ Can’t he drive a car?   Yes, he can. / No, he can’t.

いろいろな疑問文とその答え方

【問1】次の疑問文の答えとして最も適当なものを,あとのア~タの中から1つずつ選べ。

① What are those?② Who is that girl?
③ Whose is this dictionary?④ When do you swim in the sea?
⑤ Where are you going now?⑥ How do you go to church every Sunday?
⑦ How old is your house?⑧ How many rabbits does your sister have?
⑨ What is your father?⑩ What is your father’s job?
⑪ Can he call on his teacher?⑫ Who broke that window?
⑬ Who was singing on the stage then?⑭ “He likes dogs.”  “Me, too.  And you?”
⑮ “How are you?”  “I’m fine, thank you.  And you?”
⑯ Does your father go to the office on foot or by car?
ア Tom did.イ She has two.ウ I’m fine, too.
エ In summer.オ To the station.カ I walk there.
キ It’s a pilot.ク He goes there on foot.ケ Tom was.
コ Yes, he can.サ He’s a pilot.シ I don’t like it.
ス They are birds.セ It’s ten years old.ソ It’s mine.
タ She is my cousin.

【問2】次の疑問文の答えとして最も適当なものを,あとのア~タの中から1つずつ選べ。

① Will you drink some more tea?② What shall I do for you?
③ How about going to the movie?④ Must I go home at once?
⑤ Why didn’t you come yesterday?⑥ May I stay here?
⑦ Is Tom going to call on her tomorrow?⑧ Who is the tallest, Tom, Bob or you?
⑨ Which does he like better, dogs or cats?⑩ Were there trees by your mansion?
⑪ Animals cannot speak, can they?⑫ What time did you leave home ?
⑬ Which is your bike, this or that?⑭ How many students are studying ?
⑮ How long will you stay in this town?”⑯ Where shall we meet at three ?
ア Tom is.イ No, you mustn’t.ウ Because I was sick.
エ No, they can’t.オ In front of the library.カ Nine are.
キ No, thanks.ク This one is.ケ At three.
コ Yes, let’s.サ He likes dogs better.シ Will you shut the door?
ス Yes, there were.セ For two weeks.ソ No, you don’t have to.
タ Yes, he is.

【問3】次の疑問文に,(  )内の語句を使って完全な文の形で答えよ。

①   What was Tom studying when I came home?  ( history )

② What was Tom doing when I came home?  ( study history )

③ What country will you visit next year?  ( Australia )

④ Who were you waiting for here?  ( Mary )

⑤ Which can run faster, this car or that one?  ( this car )

⑥ How far is it from Tokyo to Hakata?  ( about 1,000 kilometers )

【問4】次の英文について,下線部が答えとなるような疑問文を作れ。

① There is a dictionary on the desk.

② I’m very fine, thank you.

③ I went to the airport by train.

④ It was half past seven at that time.

⑤ My grandfather is ninety-nine.

⑥ Tom was running along the river.

⑦ Mary has three friends in Saitama.

⑧ It takes an hour to go there by train.

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