「~がある・ない」の文型

牧場 英文法Ⅱ

主語が不特定のものの場合

《 [        ]+is (are)+不特定の主語+場所を表す副詞句 》 の文の形で,

『~がある・ない』 の意味を表す。

⑵ この文型の場合,[        ]には意味はない。

☆ 次の英文を口頭で日本文に直せ。(下線部が主語である)

① There is a pen on the desk.

② There is a map on the wall.

③ There is a tall tree by the building.

④ There are four seasons in a year.

⑤ There are some American students in this room.

☆ 肯定文・否定文・疑問文の形を暗記せよ。

肯定文 There is a book on the table.

否定文 There is not a book on the table.

疑問文 Is there a book on the table?

答 え Yes, there is (a book on it).

答 え No, there isn’t(a book on it).

【問1】上の①~⑤の英文について,それぞれの疑問文を作り,さらにYesで答える文を作れ。

【問2】次の英文について,(     )内の語を主語にしてhaveを用いた文に書き換えよ。

① There is a camera in his bag.  (He)

② There isn’t a passport in my pocket.  (I)

③ There are two parks in this town.  (This town)

④ There are seven days in a week.  (A week)

⑤ How many months are there in a year?  (A year)

 主語が特定のものの場合

⑴ 『~がある・ない』の意味を表す英文は,主語が特定のものの場合,

《 [        ]+[        ]+場所を表す語句 》 の語順になる。

⑵ 主語が不特定のものの場合と区別する。

☆ 次の英文を口頭で日本文に直せ。(下線部が主語である)

①   My brother is at home.

② The cap is on the wall.

③ The building is near the hospital.

④ Mother and Mary are in the kitchen.

⑤ Those students are in this classroom

⑥ “Where is your cat?” “It’s under the chair.”

【問1】上の①~⑥の英文について,それぞれの疑問文を作り,さらにNoで答える文を作れ。

【問2】次の英文には,文法上誤りを含むものが5つある。それらの文を正しい文に書き換えよ。

① There are books.

② There is Tom in his room.

③ Is there a bank there?

④ Eight girls are on the stage.

⑤ My bicycle is under the tree.

⑥ Where is there your uncle?

⑦ Are there some balls in this box?

⑧ Are there many shops near the station?

⑨ My doll was in that bag.

⑩ How many dictionaries are on the desk?

What ~?の文とその答え方

疑問文    Is there  a radio on the table?

疑問文         What

疑問文   What is (there) on the table?              ★thereは省略する。

答 え   There is a radio (on it).

My radio is (on it).

☆ 次の英文を日本文に直せ。

① What’s on the desk?                               ★What’sはWhat isの短縮形。

There is a pen on it.

② What’s in this box?

Mary’s doll is in it.

③ What are under the chair?

There are two cats under it.

④ What are on the wall?

My sister’s pictures are on it.

【問1】次の英文を,(    )内の指示に従って書き換えよ。

① There are players on the stage. (疑問文に)

② There is a big shop in this town. (否定文に)

③ Are there many students near here? (Yesで答える文に)

④ There are books in her bag. (haveを用いた文に)

⑤ There are two boys in this room. (下線部を問う文に)

⑥ There is a pot on the table. (下線部を問う文に)

【問2】次の英文を読んで,あとの問いに答えよ。

Our city is very beautiful.  We have two parks in our city.  ①There is a park near my house.  ②I often walk in the park with my family.  There are a lot of flowers and trees in the park.  The flowers are very pretty.  There are many birds *among the trees.  ③They are busy in the trees.

(注)among ~=「の間に」

⑴ 下線部①の文について,a parkをたずねる文を作れ。

⑵ 下線部②の文を日本語に直せ。

⑶ 下線部③の指し示すものを英語で答えよ。

⑷ 本文の内容について,次の問いに英語で答えよ。

  • How many parks are there in this city?
  • Are there many trees in the park?

⒊ What are among the trees?

【問3】次の英文を読んで,あとの問いに答えよ。

I am Kenji Yamada.  Tom is my good friend.  We live ( ① ) the *same town.  His house is in front ( ② ) our school.  But my house is near the park.  We play baseball there after school.  I sometimes visit Tom.  His room is very nice.  He has a computer.  It is on the desk.  He has two guitars.  ( ③ ) are by the window.

(注)same =「同じ 」

⑴ 文中の( ① )~( ③ )に入る適語を1語ずつ答えよ。

⑵ 下線部thereは何を指しているか。英語で答えよ。

⑶ 本文の内容について,次の問いに英語で答えよ。

⒈ Where is Tom’s computer?

⒉ How many guitars does Tom have?

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